Variability and predictability of Antarctic krill swarm structure

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first_imgSwarming is a fundamental part of the life of Euphausia superba, yet we still know very little about what drives the considerable variability in swarm shape, size and biomass. We examined swarms across the Scotia Sea in January and February 2003 using a Simrad EK60 (38 and 120 kHz) echosounder, concurrent with net sampling. The acoustic data were analysed through applying a swarm-identification algorithm and then filtering out all non-krill targets. The area, length, height, depth, packing-concentration and inter-swarm distance of 4525 swarms was derived by this method. Hierarchical clustering revealed 2 principal swarm types, which differed in both their dimensions and packing-concentrations. Type 1 swarms were generally small (<50 m long) and were not very tightly packed (100 km away from the next swarm). The distribution of swarm types over the survey grid was examined with respect to a number of potential explanatory variables describing both the environment and the internal-state of krill (namely maturity, body length, body condition). Most variables were spatially averaged over scales of similar to 100 km and so mainly had a mesoscale perspective. The exception was the level of light (photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) for which measurements were specific to each swarm. A binary logistic model was constructed from four variables found to have significant explanatory power (P < 0.05): surface fluorescence, PAR, krill maturity and krill body length. Larger (type 2) swarms were more commonly found during nighttime or when it was overcast during the day, when surface fluorescence was low, and when the krill were small and immature. A strong pattern of diel vertical migration was not observed although the larger and denser swarms tended to occur more often at night than during the day. The vast majority of krill were contained within a minor fraction of the total number of swarms. These krill-rich swarms were more common in areas dominated by small and immature krill. We propose that, at the mesoscale level, the structure of swarms switches from being predominantly large and tightly packed to smaller and more diffuse as krill grow and mature. This pattern is further modulated according to feeding conditions and then level of light. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.last_img read more


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first_imgOral corticosteroids (like prednisone, cortisone or dexamethasone) can cause bone loss if taken regularly. Other medicines, such as antiseizure drugs, very high-dose thyroid drugs or drugs that lower testosterone levels, can also cause bone loss.One study compared two groups of women who had asthma. One group used inhaled corticosteroids, commonly known as steroids, to control asthma symptoms. The other group didn’t use steroids.All of the women had their BMD measured over three years. Women who used inhaled steroids had more bone loss in their hips and upper thigh bones than women who didn’t use steroids. The women who inhaled more than eight puffs of steroids daily had even more bone loss than those who inhaled only four to eight puffs. The more inhaled steroid used, the greater the bone loss.While this study makes inhaled steroids sound harmful, people with asthma shouldn’t stop using them.Consult Your Doctor Both studies bring to light the unseen and harmful effects some drugs can have on bones. It’s very important for people taking drugs that can cause bone loss to consume adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D. Adult men and women need 1,000 milligrams of calcium and 200 international units of vitamin D daily. Adults over 50 need 1,200 mg calcium and 400 to 600 IU vitamin D daily. This is easily supplied by three or more servings of milk daily. However, you may also need to take calcium and vitamin D supplements to protect bones from the medication side effects.We all need to get as much physical activity as possible, especially weight-bearing exercises like walking, dancing or gardening, to keep bones strong. It’s important to avoid things that weaken bones, like smoking and heavy drinking.If you have any of these risk factors, ask your doctor if you need medications that prevent bone loss.To read more on bone loss studies, visit this Web site: http://content.nejm.org/content/vol345/issue13/index.shtml. We learn as children that milk builds strong teeth and bones. But as adults, we need to be aware that things can tear down our bones, too.Two new, similar studies examined medications that can influence bone mineral density. BMD is a measure of bone strength and bone mineral content. Low BMD puts both men and women at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures. Healthy BMD depends on many factors, including adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and regular exercise. Bone loss, or low BMD, can be caused by not getting enough calcium and vitamin D, as well as by smoking, inactivity, genetics and certain medications.Drugs Can Cause Bone Losscenter_img If you have asthma, work with your doctor to control your asthma symptoms with the lowest steroid doses possible or with nonsteroidal asthma medications. Also, talk to your doctor about BMD testing and how to protect your bones.The second study looked at preventing or slowing bone loss in men treated for prostate cancer. These patients are often treated with drugs that decrease levels of testosterone (male hormones). Bone loss is a common side effect. This drug-induced bone loss can cause osteoporosis and increase fracture risk in men.All of the men in the study were treated with a testosterone-lowering drug. Half were also treated with a drug that works to slow bone loss.Men treated with the testosterone-lowering drug alone lost bone in their spine, hip and thighbones. Men both treated with the bone-saving drug and testosterone-lowering drug had no bone loss.About 200,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year. If you are diagnosed with prostate cancer, discuss treatment options and side effects with your doctor. If you’re taking testosterone-lowering drugs, discuss how to slow bone loss and if you need BMD testing.Calcium, Activity Criticallast_img read more


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first_imgVermonter Produces Top Radio Spot In NationalCompetition(Montpelier, VT) An independent audio producer andvoice-over talent from Montpelier recently produced asixty- second radio commercial for Vanguard Recordsthat earned “Best Radio Spot” in a nationalcompetition. The National Association of RadioMerchandisers (N.A.R.M.) awarded the prize toVanguard Records for the commercial promoting theirartist Mindy Smith. The spot was produced and voicedby Jody Petersen.Petersen says “The N.A.R.M. award means a lot,considering the competition. These are big time musicpeople judging the ads- Im just thrilled thatVanguard hired me to produce a spot for an artist likeMindy Smith.” N.A.R.M. is a not for profit tradeassociation who’s nearly 400 member companiesrepresent retailers, wholesalers, and distributors ofprerecorded music in the United States. Its mission isto promote the visibility and image of theentertainment software industry. The annual NARMAdvertising Awards recognize outstanding achievementfor ads promoting music, video and other prerecordedentertainment software products.Petersen, former Music Director, Disc Jockey andProducer for WNCS/ The Point, now works independentlyat her own studio in Montpelier. Her long associationwith record labels has carried over to production ofradio and television commercials to promote their newC.D. releases. Vanguard’s head of radio promotion, ArtPhillips said, “Jody Petersen is my ‘go to’ personfor production. She understands our artists and getsto the heart of our records in sixty seconds.”Jody’s voice-over work extends nationally through anISDN connection. From her Montpelier location she canvoice spots for studios as far away as Orlando,Florida.Paul Kaza of Paul Kaza Associates, a well-establishedBurlington ad agency reflects, “since Day One she wasa national caliber voice. I considered it a privilegeto utilize Jody and have done so consistently as ouragency grew.” -30-last_img read more


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first_img A Colombian Air Force (FAC) helicopter crashed in the northern part of the country on April 30, leaving 13 dead, seven Military personnel and six police officers, while the cause of the accident is not yet known, a statement by the Military branch announced. According to a FAC statement, “all occupants [in the aircraft accident] died. Members of the Colombian Air Force and the National Police were being transported on board.” The report specified that the helicopter, a Bell 212 with registration FAC 4020 and assigned to the 3rd Combat Air Command, was transporting five Air Force officers and two non-commissioned officers, as well as one police non-commissioned officer and five patrolmen. The report added that the aircraft was travelling between the city of Barranquilla, the capital of the department of Atlántico, and the town of Caucasia, “on a transport mission for the planning and implementation of an operation by the Nudo Paramillo Task Force.” “The Air Force has sent an inspection commission to the site of the events, with the aim of moving forward on the corresponding investigation and determining the causes of the accident,” it added. By Dialogo May 02, 2012last_img read more


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first_img March 15, 2006 Regular News House Judiciary to take up measure to undo voucher ruling House Judiciary to take up measure to undo voucher ruling The Florida House Judiciary Committee is set to consider a constitutional amendment intended to overturn the Florida Supreme Court’s recent ruling in the school voucher case, Bush v. Holmes, case no. SC04-2323.The measure, PCB JU 06-03, was on the committee’s February 22 agenda, but Chair Rep. David Simmons, R-Altamonte Springs, announced at the beginning of the meeting that it would not be taken up that day. He said the measure was still being worked on, as was the staff analysis. He said the proposed amendment is likely to come up before the committee early in the Regular Session, which began March 7, after this News went to press.After the meeting, Simmons said the amendment is about “vested rights, it’s dealing with the proper interpretation of the constitution.”While a five-justice majority in Bush v. Holmes found that a state voucher program violated the constitutional provisions requiring the state to provide a uniform system of free, quality education, Simmons said he agreed with the two dissenting justices who said it was within the legislature’s powers to decide how that system of education should be provided.The majority opinion “flies in the face of well-known constitutional principles. . . that all power is vested in the people and their representatives,” Simmons said. “This is something we need to do to clear up the constitution.”The amendment would add language to Section III of the constitution which says, “No person belonging to one branch shall impose, apply, or enforce a limitation on the power appertaining to any of the other branches, unless the limitation is expressly provided herein.”Another addition to Section III reads, “Nothing in this constitution shall be interpreted to limit the power vested in the legislature, except as expressly limited herein.”The amendment would also add language to Section X, which in part reads, “The specification of a manner of fulfilling a state obligation shall not be construed as limiting any power to adopt alternatives in addition thereto, if otherwise within the powers vested or granted herein, unless the limitation is expressly provided herein.”The amendment also specifies that it applies retroactively.last_img read more


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first_imgLast week, it was reported that U.S. labor productivity, as measured by the amount of gross domestic product (GDP) produced by one hour of labor, declined 0.6% in the first three months of 2017. The decline was more than expected. A problem that Ms. Yellen, along with most Federal Reserve (Fed) governors and presidents, view with strong concern, is getting worse, not better. Moreover, the Fed, along with many economists and economic policy makers, admit that they really don’t know how to fix the problem. Yet in the face of this problem, as noted in their statement on monetary policy Wednesday, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) was quite sanguine with the prospects for the economy going forward, more or less dismissing the rather soft first-quarter data. There seems to be a disconnect here between the Fed’s concern over productivity, which Ms. Yellen has gone so far in the past as to call “miserable,” their outlook for the economy, and their desire to tighten monetary policy as early as next June.One of the potential reasons that labor productivity remains dismal in the face of increasing employment during this seven-year economic expansion could be that the quality of jobs produced has been dominated by relatively low productivity retail jobs. Nevertheless, during this long, if not spectacular, expansion, manufacturing of durable goods has been growing in sectors such as autos. Additionally, the first half of 2017 experienced a rebound in energy and energy jobs as well.Perhaps the Fed believes that there will be a continued improvement in the productive quality of jobs that will, in relatively quick time, give us the productivity and economic growth befitting an economy that is at or near full employment. However, in my opinion, for the Fed to believe this, they must be discounting the problems we are beginning to see crop up in auto production and energy as temporal. Are they temporal? continue reading » 7SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblrlast_img read more


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first_img continue reading » Just like my favorite rapper, T.I. –I’m back baby and better than ever!If you’re anything like yours truly, you’ve been thinking more about a perfectly cooked roast with creamed spinach than you have about the increasingly bizarre intersection of politics policy and regulation. There’s been some real doozies over the last week and a half so here’s some quick hits on what you missed:HMDAActing CFPB Director Mick Mulvaney is continuing to move quickly to make a decisive imprint on the CFPB. On December 31st, he announced that the Bureau did not intend to require institutions to resubmit data or assess penalties with respect to information collected in 2018 and reported in 2019 under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act. In addition, we can expect proposed amendments to the CFPB’s regulations which greatly expanded the amount of data mortgage lenders have to collect starting yesterday. 6SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblrlast_img read more


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first_img continue reading » Gender parity doesn’t happen on its own. It takes a conscious effort and steadfast commitment to change the lack of diverse talent within your upper tiers. Now more than ever women are ready for their rightful seat at the proverbial table. Here are five steps organizations can take to balance the gender scales.1. Find Your Visionary Leader“We’ll start a leadership development program when we are ‘ready’?” The truth is, no company is ever fully ready—especially without developed leaders.  A visionary leader needs to put a stake in the ground and set stretch goals knowing it will require boldness. Sharing these goals with the company can be a challenge, but it needs to be proactively addressed. Break these goals down into milestones and building blocks that can be achieved over the course of a year.Find four more ways to advance women at your credit union in the full version of this article on the myCUES app. Find it under “Spotlight.” 2SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblrlast_img read more


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first_imgSince doctors did not know exactly when Sophie Trudeau became virus-free, the prime minister said he would observe another 14 full days of confinement.Addressing reporters from the porch of his Rideau Cottage residence in Ottawa, Trudeau noted that workers across Canada had discovered that they can do an “awful lot of work via telephone, via video conferences — and that’s exactly what I am doing.”The prime minister has been in self-isolation since his wife tested positive for the coronavirus on March 12 following a trip to London. She announced Saturday that her physicians had pronounced her cured, giving her a green light to return to normal life. Topics : Justin Trudeau said his wife had taken their children to Harrington Lake, just northwest of Ottawa, the site of a summer residence and official retreat for Canadian prime ministers. Trudeau also announced new financial measures to help vulnerable Canadians — particularly children and the aged — hard hit by the side-effects of the coronavirus. Asked at the news conference whether he might call on Canada’s armed forces to help enforce officially imposed travel curbs, Trudeau said he had no plans to do so for now.Separately, Dr. Theresa Tam, Canada’s chief public health officer, called on Canadians returning to their country to strictly respect the 14 days of confinement imposed by the government. She referred in particular to “snowbirds” — the Canadians who pass much of the winter in Florida and other warmer locales, many of whom have recently been returning home. As of Sunday, 6,243 Canadians had tested positive for the coronavirus, and 64 have died, according to a tally from Johns Hopkins University.center_img Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said Sunday that he would remain in self-imposed isolation even though his wife, who had contracted the coronavirus, has recovered. Although Sophie Gregoire Trudeau received the all-clear from her physicians on Saturday, the prime minister said, and he himself has no symptoms, he had been “sharing a roof with someone who tested positive for COVID-19.” “I have to continue in isolation in order to be sure that we’re following all the protocols and the recommendations by Health Canada,” Trudeau said.last_img read more


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first_imgThe National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) has warned of a potential eruption of Mount Merapi in Central Java following a series of tectonic earthquakes that recently rattled surrounding regions.BNPB prevention division deputy head Lilik Kurniawan said their prediction was based on the agency’s observation and report from the Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation Center (PVMBG) regarding Mt. Merapi’s volcanic activity over the past few weeks.“We received information from the PVMBG on July 4 regarding Mt. Merapi’s activity. [It found] that shallow tectonic quakes had occurred on two consecutive days,” Lilik said during an online discussion held by the national COVID-19 task force on Thursday as quoted by kompas.com. He went on to say that such frequency of tectonic quakes could indicate a potential volcanic eruption.The agency had officially written to Yogyakarta Sultan Hamengkubuwono X – who also serves as the governor of Yogyakarta – and Central Java Governor Ganjar Pranowo regarding such concerns, he added.“We need to be informed of the possibilities and be ready for a potential eruption,” Lilik said as he called for the local residents to prepare for such an occurrence.Mt. Merapi – one of the most active volcanoes in the archipelago – erupted twice last month, spewing a 6,000-meter-high column of hot ash and volcanic material.In 2010, the volcano erupted, leaving more than 300 people dead and forcing almost 400,000 people to take refuge. Authorities have raised the volcano’s alert level to waspada (caution), the second-highest level in the country’s four-tiered alert system. (rfa)Topics :last_img read more


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